DQ9-Lester

  1. Pay attention to the way Lester summarizes and spins the conversation. What have people been saying, and how will he re-direct thinking about the issue?
  2. Write a 1-sentence summary of each of the sections of the essay (i.e., the sections with subtitles).
  3. What key terms does Lester borrow from his sources? For example, what is a “privacy pragmatist”? List and define 2-4 others.
  4. Which part of Lester’s report is new to you, in other words, what new idea has he given you to think about?
  5. Lester concludes his article by outlining a series of questions that remain to be answered but whose answers will surely be a matter of contention. However, the “one irreducible truth” they reveal, he claims, is that “privacy is not so much a legal or technical concept as a social one” (39).
  • How does this conclusion compare to the claim he set out to develop?
  • Let’s assume that this conclusion is convincing. How has Lester built up to it, or led readers to it? Give specific examples of Lester’s strategies that incline you to agree with his assessment.

12 thoughts on “DQ9-Lester

  1. 1. What people have been saying is that there is this new technology where this device can we can implant in someone that tracks and recovers humans and remain working for years. New surveillance and information-gathering technologies are everywhere these days and they are “setting off all sorts of alarm bells for those who worry about the erosion of privacy” (Lester 27). Politicians can’t talk enough about privacy and are rushing to pass laws to protect it. When Scott McNealy was asked whether privacy safeguards has been built into a new computer-networking system that Sun had just released, McNealy responded that, “You have zero privacy anyway, get over it.” However, Lester stated that today people are coming to realization and that in fact expectations of privacy have in large measure always been created or broadened by the arrival of new technologies. People are coming to accept the notion that the protection of privacy is a pervasive and lasting concern in the computer age and that it may turn out to be the true enabler of the information economy.

    2. “The Decade of Tracking and Monitoring” was talking about the privacy debate today during the digital age and what is unsettling to people is the idea that personal data can be converted into information that can be exchanged, bought, or sold for secondary use without one’s knowledge or consent. The “An Emerging Business Imperative” talked about how privacy is good for business and how in order to have a good business you can’t give up on having privacy in today’s age since you need it. “Hitting a Fly With A Sledgehammer?” talked about the Zero-Knowledge company that is a privately held company that was co-founded in 1997 by two brothers and the company claims to be “leading the privacy revolution” which offers a personal firewall for $49.95 that one gets access to a premium service that essentially amounts to an impenetrable online cloaking device. “The Cypherpunks” is about how Zummerman who created software that protected people’s privacy online became the model for a new breed of privacy activist – the one who uses computer technology to protect privacy. His own personal team of mathematicians, computer scientists, and software engineers to discuss ways that they can defend personal privacy in the computer age and they called themselves the Cypherpunks. “The Cadillac of Anonymizers” is about how two brothers who were already millionaires and wanted to do something else involving people’s privacy so they wanted to come out with a tool that people could express their concerns or passions about privacy by actively using something – they wanted to be leaders in the privacy space. “A Distressingly Leaky System” is about the relationship between technology and privacy and between computers and privacy. No right to privacy was specified in the Constitution. “The Privacy Pragmatists” is about how there are three categories in our population – there are privacy fundamentalists, the privacy unconcerned, and the privacy pragmatists who are people that are always balancing the potential benefits and threats involved in sharing information. “We’re Your Agent” is about how Fred Davis didn’t want his privacy invaded anymore and he didn’t want anybody stealing or selling his information without his permission which is why he designed his company, Lumeria. “The Spread of Privacy Consultants” is about how all companies whose business in one form or another involves the management of personal information will probably end up having chief privacy officers in the near future. Even if not every company will need to hire a CPO the signs are that the services of privacy consultants are going to be in regular demand from now on – to help companies develop overall privacy policies to examine new and existing information-management systems. “The Extreme Solutions is about how Hasting claims that HavenCo is making real privacy available. “A Matter of Trust” is about how most people don’t instinctively trust technology especially in the hands of business to protect privacy. However contemporary notions of privacy have in many cases evolved not despite new technology. Also, how the evolution of the notions and what is expected to come next with the advancing technology.

    3. A “privacy pragmatist” is someone who are always balancing the potential benefits and threats involved in sharing information. “The Privacy concerned” are people who don’t care to think about privacy, and don’t see any problem with giving their information away and don’t worry at all about how that information might be used. “Privacy fundamentalists” are people who are deeply concerned about privacy rights and potential invasions of privacy and they therefore reject any consumer benefits that require oversight of their activity or the release if data about themselves. Applied Cryptography is the development and use of such codes that was until recently “the province of learned people everywhere.”

    4. The part of Lester’s report that is new to me is the fact that so many companies are aware of the sense of privacy and how today we are losing this sense of privacy and they have certain softwares that help their employees maintain their personal privacy. I had no idea that the companies were even concerned about their employees’ sense of privacy especially since today there are things that make you able to spy on your workers to make sure they aren’t fooling around when you’re supposed to be doing your work.

    5. The “one irreducible truth” that was revealed in this essay was that Lester claims, that “privacy is not so much a legal or technical concept as a social one” (39). This conclusion compares to the claim that he made because he made the point about asking who you should trust with your information. He said that this evolution will be one of the more interesting developments to watch in the twenty-first century. Nothing is clear yet, of course, but if history is any guide, a good place to get a sense of what is to come will be the databases of the US Patent and Trademark Office. The way that Lester made this conclusion so convincing is that he lead up to everything in order to make his conclusion so powerful. Some examples of this was when he said in the beginning of the essay he started out saying that, “A relatively unsung virtue of the US Patent and Trademark Office is that its databases can be viewed collectively as a sort of cultural seismograph, registering interesting spikes of entrepreneurial enthusiasm” (27). Lester also talked about how the new surveillance and information gathering technology is out there. He said, “But something very interesting is happening the market for goods and services that protect privacy is surging Entrepreneurs are realizing that privacy and technology are not fundamentally at odds – and that, in fact, expectations of privacy have in large measure always been created or broadened by the arrival of new technologies. People are coming to accept the notion that the protection of privacy is a pervasive and lasting concern in the computer age — and that, indeed it may turn out to be the true enabler of the information economy” (28). He went to describe the new technologies and then he said how that is the cause of the lack of privacy and then he discussed how companies are trying to save some of their employees’ privacy.

  2. 1. Lester, in each section of his article, talks about the many different sides of privacy. Many people are saying that they want a right to privacy and are desperately searching for it. Lester takes this and talks about how one could take the idea of privacy and market it to the people to create a profit. It is something everyone wants and something that most businesses need to provide in order to stay in business. Lester takes people’s thoughts about how they want privacy to how one could turn this into a potential business. He even gives the example of Austin and Hamnett Hill and how they saw that people wanted privacy, so they made a business of it.
    2. For the section titled “The Decade of Tracking And Monitoring,” Lester discussed the several different ways in which one’s private information could be taken. In “An Emerging Business Imperative,” described how privacy and business work well together because if you promote a business by ensuring consumer privacy, it is more appealing to the public. In Lester’s section titled “Hitting A Fly With A Sledgehammer,” he highlights how companies function being completely anonymous and that’s how they sell their business to others. The ever growing popularity of cryptography and how it is used in several communications today and throughout history is the main point of “The Cypherpunks.” “The Cadillac Of Anonymizers” deals with Austin and Hamnett Hill and how they created a privacy company and made millions off of it. In the section “The Privacy Pragmatists,” talks about the different ways people classify themselves between what their opinions are toward privacy invasion and the selling of personal information. In the last section, “Extreme Solutions,” talked about different ways people solve the problem of people’s need for privacy.
    3. A privacy Pragmatist is one who balances themselves and their opinions of their privacy between the advantages of giving up information and the consequences of doing such a thing. Another term Lester borrows from his source is “privacy fundamentalist” and “privacy unconcerned” A “privacy fundamentalist” is people who are really sensitive to their right to privacy and turn away from anything that would require them to divulge a large amount of private information. “Privacy unconcerned” are people that do not care how their information is taken or used or how much of their privacy they reveal to others.
    4. A new idea that Lester has me thinking about is how businesses take advantage of our desire for privacy. Before, I had only thought about how people had a lack of privacy that continued to diminish with the arrival of new technologies. Because of Lester, I’m now thinking about how people are making money off this privacy desire of the public. They are making programs and using cryptography and selling it to businesses to make money. The people get the privacy they sought after and the creators of these systems make money.
    5.

  3. 1. The caption below the title of his article read “It used to be that business and technology were considered the enemies of privacy. Not anymore” (Lester 1). Immediately he makes his stance clear and the spin he puts on the topic of technology and privacy. They used to be the enemy he claims, but now it is the savior to protecting our privacy. He explains this when he says “People are coming to accept the notion that the protection of privacy is a pervasive and lasting concern in the computer age—and that, indeed, it may turn out to be the true enabler of the information economy” (Lester 1). Lester forces us to start thinking about the quality in technology that protects our privacy rather than the dangers of it eroding our privacy.
    2. The Decade of Tracking and Monitoring: Our information is everywhere and can be accessed by almost anyone so companies are going to act on this by trying to protect our privacy.
    An Emerging Business Imperative: Because privacy is scarcer, it is more valued so there will be an emergence of privacy protecting companies.
    Hitting a Fly With a Sledgehammer?: Zero-Knowledge is a privately held company that creates an impenetrable wall to protect your information in emails and on the internet.
    The Cypherpunks: Cypherpunks led to a number of businesses dedicated to protecting privacy through technology, specifically cryptography.
    The Cadillac of Anonymizers: Privacy is going to be one of the biggest industries in the world.
    The Privacy Pragmatists: Privacy pragmatists see the benefits and threats of in having their information out there.
    We’re Your Agent: Lumeria is a company that helps you decide who your information gets shared with so you have some control over your privacy.
    The Spread of Privacy Consultants: CPO’s are going to be necessary for almost all businesses in the near future in order to be successful.
    Extreme Solutions: HavenCo is making “real privacy available” (Lester 11).
    A Matter of Trust: Technology and privacy are not opposites but dependent on each other.
    3. Privacy pragmatists are people who see the benefits and threats of having their information accessible. Micropayments are “functionally anonymous bearer-cash systems that do very small streaming transactions” (Lester). A honeypot is “an alluring mass of valuable information about consumers that is a natural target for privacy invasion” (Lester).
    4. A lot of Lester’s essay is new to me. I was unaware of this huge privacy industry that is already present in our society and was shocked to hear that it will only become larger. All of these companies seem to be very successful which has led me to think about our economy and how this new industry might affect is and hopefully boost it.
    5. After reading Lester’s quote “privacy is not so much a legal or technical concept as a social one” (Lester 39) I was more confused than anything. The first sentence below the title read “It used to be that business and technology were considered the enemies of privacy. Not anymore” (Lester 1). After reading this I thought his focus would be on privacy being a technical problem. What would incline me to agree with him is when he quotes authors Cavoukian and Tapscott when they say “Protection of privacy is not just a moral or social issue” (Lester 2). Here is evidence that others believe and almost assume that privacy is a social issue. Lester also backs up his claim by quoting Fred Davis when he discusses how privacy is the biggest social issue of the Internet age because it is practically unconstitutional.

  4. 1. Lester first talks about how new surveillance and information gathering technologies are everywhere today and states that Americans are very concerned about their privacy. He states that businesses and technology are seen as the culprits and states an example where McNealy, the chief executive officer of Sun Microsystems said that “You have zero privacy anyways… get over it” when he revealed that privacy safeguards were not built into a new computer net-working system (Lester 27). Lester re-directs thinking about the issue by then providing many examples of people who have started businesses to protect the privacy of people and states many of their opinions on the issue of privacy. He talks about many examples of how people want to protect their privacy and the privacy of other people and shows that even in an age with all of this technology, it is possible that we can still keep it.

    2. Personal data has been converted into information that can be exchanged, bought, or sold for secondary use without even getting permission from the person.
    With the increasing lack of privacy, new privacy protecting companies are going to begin to emerge and privacy management will be one of America’s great industries.
    Zero-Knowledge is a company that sells an online cloaking device by wrapping information in multiple layers of encryption, which gives up to five identities that people can use to search the web and send emails.
    Zimmerman created an encryption program because cryptography should protect not only national secrets but also private personal data that is stored on and transmitted between computers.
    The Hill brothers realized that the more computers are intertwined in our lives, the bigger the issues are, and built the ultimate consumer privacy tool and a privacy protection business.
    Explains how original computers did not have real operating systems and had serious ideas about security so people could not read other peoples’ files or trash the system, but personal computers came out and had a lot of the security left out.
    Westin divides the population into three categories of privacy fundamentalists, the privacy unconcerned, and the privacy pragmatics.
    Lumeria gives control back to people over their information and it allows individuals to decide what information they share with what people and web sites without losing their identity.
    All companies whose business involves the management of personal information will need to hire privacy consultants to help companies develop overall privacy policies and to examine new and existing information management systems.
    Extreme solutions talks about how making transactions online today is very different than the trade economy that used to flourish.
    A matter of trust talks about how a lot of people do not trust technology and questions the extent of which privacy is lost.

    3. “Privacy pragmatist” is defined by Westin as people who are “always balancing the potential benefits and threats involved in sharing information” (Lester 34). They will release certain information depending on what they can get in return for it. He also uses Westin’s term “privacy fundamentalist” which are people who are “deeply concerned about privacy rights and potential invasions of privacy, and reject any consumer benefits that require oversight of their activity or the release of data about themselves” (Lester 34). These people want to keep private as much as they can. Lester also uses the word “honeypot” which he defines as an alluring mass of valuable information about consumers that is naturally target for privacy invasion.

    4. The part of the Lester’s report that is new to me is that there are privacy related businesses already established. I did not know before that there were independent software agents for protecting consumers’ privacy. These businesses allow people to web browse and email anonymously. Also, there are systems called Private Payments that allows random, unique card numbers for each online purchase. A California law firm also offers something called The Privacy Trust, which “conceals ownership of bank and brokerage accounts, the family home, rental properties, and interests in other entities” (Lester 28). I had no idea that these were capabilities and I am interested in how much some of these things cost. It is good to see that there is some progress toward protecting privacy on the Internet.

    5. The “one irreducible truth” the essay reveals, Lester claims, is that “privacy is not so much a legal or technical concept as a social one” (39). He claims that most people do not trust technology, which is the same claim he had through out his essay. People have had to start to protect their privacy because of the way technology has made people act. It is no longer safe to buy things online, put your information out there, or send emails because there are people out there looking to get this information. Lester believes that “contemporary notions of privacy have evolved not despite new technology but because of it” and “privacy is a distinctly modern product” (Lester 39). Lester has led readers to his conclusion by showing how the protection of privacy has brought a new sector of economy into being because of all of the technology. “Among entrepreneurs and venture capitalists it is known as the privacy space” and this privacy space is working to make people anonymous online and able to send emails, web search, and have no ties to their personal information through the Internet. This is how they plan to protect privacy from technology.

  5. 1. People have been saying that privacy is dead and destructed, it has ended and that soon full surveillance will be a reality. “Books have recently appeared with such titles as Database Nation The Death of Privacy in the 21st Century… and The End of Privacy, How Total Surveillance Is Becoming a Reality.” These are seen as dire predictions with business and technology as the cause. With this people are coming to accept the fact, and are participating in various methods to protect their privacy, increasing the market for such mechanisms.
    2. The Decade of Tracking and Monitoring: Businesses see the privacy debate as playing our in several years and that is an opportunity for them to get leadership in the privacy space. An Emerging Business Imperative: Privacy is good for business; privacy will be more valuable in the future because it will be so scarce; therefore privacy management will be one of America’s great growth service industries. Hitting a Fly with a Sledgehammer: Companies don’t claim to do all that Zero-Knowledge does, privacy isn’t protected without Zero-Knowledge and crypto. The Cypherpunks: Cryptography after used by the government evolved to people’s person use to protect their privacy and cypherpunks make it possible. The Cadillac of Anonymizers: Privacy is a growing industry and will soon be the largest, which means more and more companies and programs will invest their time and money to meet the demands of privacy and make lots of money. A Distressingly Leaky System: Warren and Brandeis changed the legal definition of privacy to include not only tangible but also the intangible realm.
    The Privacy Pragmatists: people classify themselves differently between what their opinions are toward privacy invasion and the selling of personal information.
    3. “minted”- to make or fabricate
    “digital cash” –money that may be transferred electronically from one party to another during a transaction.
    “privacy pragmatis” – who have strong feelings about privacy and are very concerned to protect themselves from the abuse or misuse of their personal information by companies or government agencies.
    4. One thing that is new to me is that businesses are a culprit in the privacy issue. Another is that the companies and businesses are working hard to give us the privacy we demand with programs, cyphers, and other methods.
    5. Lester concludes his article by outlining a series of questions that remain to be answered but whose answers will surely be a matter of contention. However, the “one irreducible truth” they reveal, he claims, is that “privacy is not so much a legal or technical concept as a social one” (39). This quote debunks like half the things he was saying about technology and businesses being crucial to privacy.

  6. 1.) People are worried about all of the new technologies that are being created, so fatly and there seems to be an uprise in the scare that privacy is slowly disappearing. Lester states, “…privacy is the issue that concerns americans the most about the twenty-first century,…”(Lester27). Lester redirects the topic by talking about how the rise in privacy markets are soaring higher then ever,”But something very interesting is happening the market for goods and services that protect privacy is surging”(Lester27). He also talks about how old and new companies are becoming involved in the business of privacy related trademarks. In the past few years Lester states that the number of Privacy based Patens have increased dramatically.

    2.) The Decade of Tracking- This section is about how peoples data Can be used in ways without the owners knowledge and how this coming decade is going to be known as “The decade of tracking and monitoring.”
    An Emerging Business Imperative- This section is about how privacy is good for business and if you are in the information based business you need to start with privacy to become or stay successful.
    Hitting a Fly with a Sledgehammer- Is about the Zero knowledge company and how they sell a fire wall that makes it almost impossible to track your information.
    The Cyberpunks- This section talks about how Mathematicians, computer scientist and software engineers came up with ways to defend personal privacy through the computer.
    The Cadillac of Anonymizers- This section covers Austin and Hamnett Hill’s privacy-protection business that has led them to millions of dollars.
    A Distressingly Leaky System- Lester talks about how people think that the right to privacy is in the constitution when it really isn’t.
    The Privacy Pragmatists- People seem to not care about privacy, these same people are the ones that don’t see anything wrong with giving up their information either.
    Were Your Agent- This section talks about how privacy is the biggest social issue in the internet age and the internet was not created to be a private thing and people need to accept that.
    The Spread Of Privacy Consultants- This section is about how information held companies such as banks and phone stores need to have someone who is in charge of all the “private Information”.
    Extreme Solutions- early times used a method of trade called bearer, then trade became different you need all the information on a seller incase they lie to you, you can get them, now because of online buying the bearer system has become used again.
    A Matter of Trust- Privacy is more so based on who you should trust rather then a legal or technical standing, people don’t trust technology even though its what brought privacy such as the car, now you can travel privately instead of in groups on a bus.

    3.)Privacy Pragmatist- Are people who have strong feelings towards their personal information being misused by companies or government agencies.
    Privacy Consultant- people who help companies improve or protect peoples personal/ private information.
    Anonymizers- are tools that try to make internet use untraceable so users will be safe from hackers and other things trying to track them.
    Cryptography- is the art of writing and solving codes

    4.) Lester brings many new parts to me in his article, one new question that rises to my attention is should the right to privacy be added to the constitution and if so does that mean internet use has to be changed because stated in the article the internet was not created to be a private thing. If so the internet will need to be changed because if the right to privacy was added we would need to either change the system of the internet or build in fire walls for each user therefore their internet use cannot be taken or seen from hackers or governmental agencies.

    5.)Lester makes claims that privacy is more social then a technical or legal concept, this compares to his other pieces in his article when talking about how the internet was created not as a private thing this automatically eliminates the technical aspect because it tells you straight up that internet is not private. also he claims that the right to privacy is not in the constitution, therefore this eliminates the legal aspect of privacy. lastly lester states that privacy is a matter of who you trust and this ties into social because who you trust with your information is going to in your eyes keep your information safe when given. A specific example that helps show how lester built up to the conclusion is on page 37 where Lester talks about trusting the seller with your information,”enable business to comply with privacy legislation. Maximize customer relationships, and build consumer trust.” this leads me to believe that his statement is true about privacy being a social aspect because trusting sellers and building buyer relationships are both social connections between two people or even a group.

  7. 1. People have been talking about this new technology that can be implanted in someone and track them. All of these types of technology are surrounding us and people are beginning to worry more and more about the “erosion of privacy” (27). Politicians are constantly bringing up privacy and working towards rights to privacy and protection of it. Lester talks about how Scott McNealy thinks that we do not have any privacy so we should not worry about it and “get over it.” Technologies bring about creation and broadening of privacy for us. We will continue to have to learn to accept that in our technological age, privacy will always be an issue we deal with.
    2. “The Decade of Tracking and Monitoring” – This section talks about how our everyday lives require us to divulge information and how there is raised concern in society about privacy.
    “An Emerging Business Imperative” – This section talks about privacy benefiting business and how it is necessary to have a good business.
    “Hitting a Fly with a Sledgehammer” – This section talks about the Zero-knowledge company that is privately held and claims to be “leading the privacy revolution” which offers a personal firewall for around fifty dollars that limits the amount of penetration by outside “searchers.”
    “The Cypherpunks” – This section is about Zummerman, who created a software that protected people’s privacy online.
    “The Cadillac of Anonymizers” – This section is about two brothers who were millionaires and wanted to create something else involving privacy, so they created something so that people could express their views about privacy.
    “A Distressingly Leaky System” – This section is about the relations between privacy and technology, and also the relations between computers and privacy.
    “The Privacy Pragmatists” – This section is about the 3 categories in our population (privacy fundamentalists, privacy unconcerned, and privacy pragmatists).
    “We’re Your Agent” – This section is about Fred Davis not wanting his privacy to be invaded or his information being stolen.
    “The Spread of Privacy Consultants” – This section is about how all companies who involve management of personal information will, in the end, have chief privacy officers in the company.
    “Extreme Solutions” – This section is about how Hasting claims that the company HavenCo is providing true privacy.
    “A Matter of Trust” – This section is about how many people do not trust technology, especially when in the hands of businesses who protect privacy.
    3. A “privacy pragmatist” is a person who is always comparing the pros and cons of sharing information.
    “the privacy unconcerned” are the people who do not see a problem with providing their information, do not bother to think about the effects of providing their information, and do not worry how that information will be used by others.
    “Privacy fundamentalist” is someone who is very sensitive to their rights to privacy and steer clear from anything that would require them to give out their private information.
    4. What stood out to me in Lester’s essay is the idea that so many companies and businesses are conscious of privacy and its importance. We have lost the sense of privacy in society today and companies and businesses are genuinely concerned about how their employees feel about their own privacy within the company.
    5. In his quote, Lester claims that most people do not trust technology. People are more concerned about protecting their privacy because the advances in technology is giving people more access to others’ information. Things such as shopping online have become a risk to our personal information. Lester brings readers to his conclusion by showing them how privacy protection has brought a new section of work to our economy because technology needs to be protected. People are trying to make all searches, emails, and other online usages anonymous. They are aiming towards protecting privacy from technology.

  8. 1. People are saying that they are trying to create new technology that creates privacy for people. For example Cavoukian states, “Privacy is good for business” and Lester is narrating the different interviews he has with people who are trying to make a business out of creating these different programs (Lester 29). It is a little challenging to tell whether he is for these programs or not. He says near the very beginning of this reading that, “…businesses in the modern free market are indifferent to the threats their new technologies pose to privacy” meaning he does feel that privacy is being lost due to technology that businesses seem to ignore the importance of (Lester 27).
    2. “The Decade of Tracking and Monitoring”- Today is becoming more and more about who has access to information and how people can access more and more.
    “An Emerging Business Imperative”- The new rising success economically will be who can create the way that people are able to “buy” privacy.
    “Hitting a Fly with a Sludgehammer?”- The question in this section really is, will these new ways of buying privacy be an overall positive thing or overall negative outcome, because some people will probably take advantage of these things?
    “The Cypherpunks”- Cryptography was used in history to send secret messages that no one else could read.
    “The Cadillac of Anonymizers”- The problem is, how can you trust this anonymous and private system?
    “A Distressingly Leaky System”- From what we know about computers, it is hard to believe that anything to do with computers is private.
    “The Privacy Pragmatists”- People need to know that they’re safe, but there are some people that are extremely concerned, others not so much, and within the population there are divisions that can clarify where people stand.
    “We’re Your Agents”- Fred Davis, founder of Lumaria was concerned with his private information.
    “The Spread of Privacy Consultants”- The fact is that if you are under any type of company, there is going to be some person that manages all and they are going to be able to identify your information.
    “The Extreme Solutions”- Hattinga’s is basically concluding what was brought up before; whether or not privacy could be good as a business.
    “A Matter of Trust”- “A lot of people don’t trust technology, especially in the hands of business” (Lester).

    3. Cryptography, brought forward in this writing by Bruce Shneier is defined as a way that was used to obtain privacy when communicating to people important information or not through secret coding. “Privacy pragmatics” Lesser uses to describe people who are overly concerned with the usage of their private information.

    4. The whole business part about “buying back privacy” is new. I had no idea there were ways even possible to go onto the internet without having anyone tracking your searches, email, or anything else on the internet. For example, I had no idea about anything called “Zero-Knowledge”.

    5. In Lesters conclusion, “Privacy is not so much a legal or technical concept as a social one” he is basically restating his claim that secret and private businesses of social environments such as the internet are being created (39). Lester believes that we are losing privacy as society develops its technological ways and it seems that everyone is now trying to find more ways of privacy. What Lester does to lead up to his conclusion is first he develops his claim that privacy is being lost through all that is monitored and tracked by the government. Lester then introduces a solution to the problem that arises, and he relates his claim by analyzing different examples of solutions to the problem. The solutions are the different organizations that maintain or create privacy. The new business.

  9. 1. People are talking about the new technology that can be implanted in your body in order to track wherever you go. People are worried about how this is fastly eroding our privacy even more than it already is. We notice that we keep coming out with new technology like this that we think would be helpful in certain situations, yet we don’t even understand what we are destroying in the process. In Lester’s article he talks about how we need to learn to accept the fact that we no longer have privacy because with the technological advances we are seeing there is no chance of us ever regaining our privacy. It weird how we never used to have privacy because we didn’t need it and then we gained it over time and took it for granted and now we are getting it taken away from us and it is like the world in crumbling in our hands. Everything we say or do could be shown world wide. Our phone calls or text messages are being monitored and now we can’t even do or go where we want without people needing to know what we are doing and where we are going.
    2. Decade of Tracking and Monitoring: This section talks about how privacy is what allows us to keep personal information to ourselves. It says that the technology have become so extensive that doctors can even “monitor their patients at home” (Lester 28).
    An Emerging Business Imperative: Cavoukian is the topic of this section. She said how she “doesn’t think that people should throw in the towel and give up just because someone says “we don’t have any privacy, get over it” (Lester 30). It seems as though Cavoukian has something under her wing that we don’t know about, but something that could be beneficial for all of us to regain hopes that we will eventually get our privacy back.
    Hitting a Fly With a Sledgehammer?: This section talks about zero- knowledge, but I didn’t really understand what this was.
    The Cypherpunks: This section is about Zummerman. He created a way for people to be able to keep personal information private online.
    The Cadillac of Anonymizes: This section talk about 2 brothers who wanted to come up with something on their own that would solve this privacy epidemic so that when something happened with someone’s privacy, they were the one’s to go to.
    A Distressingly Leaky System: This sections talks about how it is hard to obtain privacy when you have such advanced technology and also talks about how no where in the constitution does it say that we have a right to privacy, we just expect it.
    Privacy Pragmatists: This section introduces 3 sections of privacy that are without our society.
    We’re Your Agent: Fred Davis talks to a CEO in this section because he is nervous that the advancement of technology is going to allow his personal information to leak from private to public.
    The Spread of Privacy Consultants: This section talks about how all businesses or anything or anyone who deals with private information that needs to be confidential will probably end up having someone watching over them sometime in the future because they don’t want any of this private information to be given to anyone or leaked.
    Extreme Solutions: A guy by the name of Robert said in this section that he has very little trust in the government because he has been in a situation where his information has been given to someone other than who was supposed to have it.
    A Matter of Trust: This section talks about how privacy is not a legal topic it is more of a social one because never in the constitution does it state that we have the right to privacy, we just believe that socially we should be able to keep thing private.
    3. A privacy pragmatist is someone who is able to balance what would be right and what would be wrong in a situation in which they were able to give up someone’s private information.
    A person who is “privacy unconcerned” in someone who doesn’t care about their privacy and it wouldn’t bother them if they didn’t have any.
    A “privacy consultant” is someone who enables people to better the way that they protect people’s privacy.
    4. What Lester talked about that is new to me is the fact that there are actually people out there who don’t care about the erosion of their privacy. They don’t think it is necessary to keep any information private. This seems strange to me because I feel like any normal human being needs to keep some things secret.
    5. Lester is essentially saying that we don’t actually have a “right” to privacy and the erosion of our privacy is not technically a violation of any laws. Although we have had a sense of privacy for a while, we have come accustom to the fact that we have it that now that we don’t we don’t know what to do. While we have privacy in the palm of our hands, we took it for granted and now that we don’t have it anymore we are upset.

  10. 1. People have been how privacy is such a huge issue in this country and worldwide. Lester then redirects the conversation by asking if privacy is more of an issue than global warming, racism and the future overpopulation. Lester says, “business and technology are seen as the culprits” (Lester 27). There, suggesting that the government doesn’t have as much to do with privacy and doesn’t invade privacy as much as businesses do.

    2. The Decade of Tracking and Monitoring: There is information out there that can be taken without people really being aware that they are giving out information and that information can be sold to other companies and used secondarily.

    An Emerging Business Imperative: Some are saying that yes privacy is an issue in this country but privacy is a good thing to start a business around so, there are going to be people who make privacy into a business, at hope to protect others privacy.

    Hitting a Fly With A Sledgehammer?: The Zero-Knowledge System says that they are a very private service and that they are a system that doesn’t show any recent activity on computers, but if need be they can access it.

    The Cypherpunks: The government began speaking in code so that no one could figure out what they were saying, then the GPG was invented and now people know what is being said.

    The Cadillac of Anonymizers: Austin and Hamnett Hill believe that privacy is going to become a huge industry and there will be a lot of markets out there trying to help the privacy issue.

    A Distressingly Leaky System: Computers and technology was first invented to help with military aspects of the country like surveillance and location, which had no privacy, which was the point and then they became more personal, which is what made privacy an issue because personal computers weren’t made private because all that was made before were computers for the military.

    The Privacy Pragmatists: There are three different levels that people are on about the privacy issue, there are: privacy mentalists, privacy un-concerned and the privacy pragmatists.

    “We’re Your Agent”: Privacy is a huge social issue, and if everything is private or anonymous then a person loses their identity in a way.

    The Spread of Privacy Consultants: Many companies are now hiring CPO’s, known as chief privacy officers, to help develop and keep privacy policies.

    Extreme Solutions: Money used to only be in hard form, bills and coins, and now there are ways to buy things and make transactions on the computer, another way to limit your personal privacy.

    A Matter Of Trust: There are different times in history when privacy has changed; when writing on paper was newest and more secure type of privacy and then technological advances, so the real question is: do the technological advances in the country make information more or less private.

    3. Surveillance society – page 28 – societies that function in part because of extensive analysis of individuals in those societies as they go about their lives. (http://www.surveillance-studies.net/?page_id=119)
    Privacy fundamentalists – page 34 – people who are deeply concerned about privacy rights and potential invasions of privacy.
    Privacy unconcerned – page 34 – People who don’t care to think about privacy, don’t see any problem with giving their information away, and don’t worry at all about how that information might be used.
    Privacy pragmatists – page 34 – People that are always balancing the potential benefits and threats involved in sharing information.

    4. A new idea that Lester has given me is the idea that if privacy is really the most important issue in this country right now. What about the racism issue, or the over population issue, or the global warming, or the tax breaks or the war. Those are other important issues as well. It really makes me question if the country and the government is spending its time wisely on the issues that take top priority.

    5. This conclusion supports the claim that he set out to develop. He is saying that there are other more important legal and technical issues that need to be dealt with first and foremost. Privacy is more of a social issue that shouldn’t take all of the time from the government. Lester has built it up to readers that it is more of a social issue that a legal issue because privacy would be good for business, and legal issues don’t have anything to do with the purpose of a business. In “An Emerging Business Imperative” Lester had talked to Ann Cavoukian and a sentence that really brought him back was, “‘Protection of privacy is not just a moral or social issue, it is also and emerging business imperative’” (Lester 29). Another reason that Lester believes that privacy is more of a social issue rather than a legal issue is because people are looking to turn privacy into a business. They are looking to see who can create the best privacy on person computers or business computers. In the essay “We’re Your Agent” Lester was talking to Fred Davis and Davis said, “Privacy is perhaps the biggest social issue of the Internet age and today’s practices don’t just suck, they’re downright unconstitutional” (35). Davis is suggesting that privacy is a social issue and not legal, yet the privacy issue is unconstitutional because it is unfair and not right.

  11. 1. Lester starts off his article by making his stance clear and his spin on the topic of technology and privacy by the caption below the title which read, “It used to be that business and technology were considered the enemies of privacy. Not anymore.” He claims that business and technology used to be the enemy, but now it is what is protecting out privacy. Lester also talks about the many different sides of privacy in each section of his article. He discusses how people want a right to privacy and are searching for it and how someone could take the idea of privacy and make a business out of it. Businesses in general need to provide privacy so that they will stay in business.

    2. “The Decade of Tracking and Monitoring” discusses several ways that someone’s private information could be taken.
    “An Emerging Business Imperative” discusses how if a business is promoted in a way that ensures consumer privacy it is more appealing to people.
    The way companies function anonymously is how they sell their business to people is highlighted in “Hitting a Fly with a Sledgehammer.”
    “The Cypherpunks” main point is the growing popularity of cryptography and how several communications today and throughout history is used.
    “The Cadillac of Anonymizers” talks about how Austin and Hamnett Hill created a privacy company and have made millions doing it.
    The different ways people will classify themselves from their opinions of privacy invasion and selling of personal information is discussed in “The Privacy Pragmatists.”
    The different ways that people solve their need for privacy is discussed in “Extreme Solutions.”

    3. Privacy pragmatists are people who are very concerned about the use and misuse of their personal information.
    Digital cash is money that is transferred electronically from one person to another.
    Privacy unconcerned are people who don’t see a problem with giving out personal information and don’t worry about how their information will be used.

    4. A new idea is how businesses take advantage of people’s want for privacy. I hadn’t really thought about how much money people are making because everyone want privacy. People do get increased privacy but there are many people who are making money by creating those systems.

    5. The “one irreducible truth” this series of questions reveal, he claims, is “privacy is not so much a legal or technical concept as a social one” (Lester 39). This quote goes against half the things he had said about technology and business being crucial to privacy.

  12. 1. People say privacy is coming to and end if not already there. We feel this happening because we are so high tech now, that its easier to watch what we do. As we become more and more aware of the need for our privacy then losing, there are more people now trying to get their privacy back or protect what we have left.
    2.The Decade of Tracking and Monitoring: Our information is everywhere and can be accessed by almost anyone so companies are going to act on this by trying to protect our privacy.
    The Cadillac of Anonymizers: Privacy is going to be one of the biggest industries in the world.
    Zero-Knowledge is a company that sells an online cloaking device by wrapping information in multiple layers of encryption, which gives up to five identities that people can use to search the web and send emails.
    A Distressingly Leaky System: Warren and Brandeis changed the legal definition of privacy to include not only tangible but also the intangible realm.
    The Cyberpunks- This section talks about how Mathematicians, computer scientist and software engineers came up with ways to defend personal privacy through the computer.
    3. Minted- To make or fabricate
    Digital cash- To do a money transfer electronically from one person to another.
    Privacy Pragmatist- Are people who seem to have strong feelings towards their personal information being used against them by big companies or government officials.
    Micropayments- are functionally anonymous bearer-cash systems that do very small streaming transactions.
    4. The newest thing I learned from this essay is that business is one of the big people in privacy issues. Also that the they get away with it and they use their power to their advantages.
    5. Lester finished his article by outlining a series of important question that he feels that need to answered. Lester says “contemporary notions of privacy have evolved not despite new technology but because of it” and “privacy is a distinctly modern product” (Lester 39). Lester leads people into this conclusion because throughout his article he will discusss what we use for technology actually hurts our rights of privacy and makes it easier for government officials to look in on us.

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